Jacobite Rebellion (Jacobite Rising of 1745)
The Jacobite rising of 1745, often referred to as "The
'Forty-Five", was the attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the Scottish
throne for the exiled House of Stuart, and recreate an absolute monarchy in
Scotland and the United Kingdom. The rising occurred during the
War of the Austrian Succession
when most of the British Army was on the European continent. Charles Edward
Stuart, commonly known as "Bonnie Prince Charlie" or "the Young Pretender,"
sailed to Scotland and raised the Jacobite standard at Glenfinnan in the
Scottish Highlands, where he was supported by a gathering of Highland clansmen.
The march south began with an initial victory at Prestonpans near Edinburgh. The
Jacobite army, now in bold spirits, marched onwards to Carlisle, over the border
in England. On reaching Derby, some British divisions were recalled from the
Continent and the Jacobite army retreated north to Inverness where the last
battle on Scottish soil took place on a nearby moor at Culloden. The Battle of
Culloden ended with the final defeat of the Jacobite cause, and with Charles
Edward Stuart fleeing with a price on his head. His wanderings in the northwest
Highlands and Islands of Scotland in the summer months of 1746, before finally
sailing to permanent exile in France, have become an era of Scottish history
that is steeped in romance.
Charles Stuart's Jacobite army consisted largely of Scottish Highlanders, as well as a number of Lowland Scots and a small detachment of Englishmen from the Manchester Regiment. The Jacobites were supported and supplied by the Kingdom of France and French and Irish units loyal to France were part of the Jacobite army. The government force was mostly English, along with a significant number of Scottish Lowlanders and Highlanders, a battalion of Ulstermen and a small number of Hessians from Germany and Austrians. The battle on Culloden Moor was both quick and bloody, taking place within an hour. Following an unsuccessful Highland charge against the government lines, the Jacobites were routed and driven from the field.
Between 1,500 and 2,000 Jacobites were killed or wounded in the brief battle, while government losses were lighter with 50 dead and 259 wounded, although recent geophysical studies on the government burial pit suggest the figure to be nearer 300. The aftermath of the battle and subsequent crackdown on Jacobitism was brutal, earning Cumberland the sobriquet "Butcher". Efforts were subsequently taken to further integrate the comparatively wild Highlands into the Kingdom of Great Britain; civil penalties were introduced to weaken Gaelic culture and attack the Scottish clan system.